Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure that allows orthopaedic surgeons to see inside a joint and fix abnormalities there. The term "arthroscopy" is derived from two Greek words: "arthro" (joint) and "skopein" (examination) (to look). The term directly translates to "to look into the joint." An orthopaedic surgeon creates a small incision in the patient's skin and inserts pencil-sized equipment with a small lens and lighting system to magnify and illuminate the structures inside the joint. Light is transmitted to the end of the arthroscope that is introduced into the joint through fibre optics. The surgeon can see the interior of the joint through this extremely small incision rather than the bigger incision required for open surgery by attaching the arthroscope to a miniature camera.
Arthroplasty is a type of orthopaedic surgery in which the articular surface of a musculoskeletal joint is replaced, modified, or realigned using osteotomy or another method. It is a non-surgical therapy used to reduce pain and restore joint function following damage caused by arthritis or another sort of trauma. The surgical replacement of an arthritic, destructive, or necrotic joint or joint surface with a prosthesis has been the most successful and prevalent form of arthroplasty for the last 45 years. The prosthesis is designed to mimic the movement of a healthy, normal joint. The most common types of arthroplasties are knee and hip replacements, although surgeons can also perform arthroplasty on other joints such as the elbow, wrist, ankle, and shoulder.